The Constitution of India has vested on its responsible citizens to develop scientific temper and a spirit of enquiry as one of the primary fundamental duties. Validating the fundamental concepts of Unani medicine in a scientific way is the vision.


The AYUSH policy advocates the need for:

  • Quality research
  • To investigate fundamental principles of Unani Medicine, Ayurveda and Siddha with scientific validation.
  • To develop evidence based support to determine the efficacy of ISM&H drugs and therapies


  • To apply scientific methods in the studies of fundamental research for a better understanding of the concept, as every system has to develop in consonance with its basic philosophy.
  • To transfect the observations into clinical research.
  • To validate the theories of fundamental research in the light of genetic, biochemical, physiological and pathological parameters and thereby correlating theories of fundamental research with modern biology.
  • To redefine the Unani concepts of health, disease, diagnosis, treatment and response based on modern scientific knowledge.
  • To popularize Unani system of medicine globally by validating its hypothesis i.e. the concepts by employing modern scientific tools and methodologies.


  • The fundamental framework of Unani system of Medicine is based on deep philosophical insights and Scientific principles, including the Empedoclean theory of four Elements i.e. Air, Water, Fire and Earth; four proximate Qualities (Kayfiyat) i.e. Hot, Cold, Wet and Dry described by Pythagoras, and the Hippocratic theory of four Humours (Akhlath) – Blood (Dam), Phlegm (Balgham), Yellow Bile (Safra) and Black Bile (Sawda). Admixture of different Elements and their Qualities in specific ratio in a particular entity, whether living or non-living, denominates its Temperament (Mizaj). Human Temperament is commonly denoted by the dominant Humour i.e. Sanguine (Damawi), Phlegmatic (Balghami), Choleric (Safrawi) and Melancholic (Sawdawi), which can be correlated with the temperament of Diet, Drugs, Environmental factors etc. as the entities of non-human Universe being made up directly of Elements are described in terms of Qualitative Temperament.
  • Unani Physicians have stressed more on the functional aspect of humour – but they have described those on the basis of fluid dynamics. The Khilt-e-dam is involved in energy and gaseous exchange processes. The Khilt-e-balgham are those humours which are associated to replenish the losses as part of catabolism – e.g. glycogen storage and depot fat. The Khilt-e-safraare those humours which are synthesized in the body to govern all the physiological processes – whereas the Khilt-e-sauda explains the physiology of end products – they are regularly expelled from the body.
  • Temperament is the unique pivotal word in the humoral concept. Mizaj is the culmination of elements – mixture or compounds – humours. Temperament is an empirical expression describing the humoral composition that govern and regulate the functional physiology and pathology in human system. But this is only a hypothesis and has not been validated by science.
  • In the study of Physiology (normal homeostatic condition) as well as disease conditions i.e. pathology in the scientific validation of the Theory of Akhlath, the use of reason and experience have always been recommended – justifiable and the utmost choice for rationalization of the concept. 
  • Studies on the Theory of Akhlath at CRIUM, Hyderabad under the Fundamental Research programme of CCRUM New Delhi armed with quality research, research methodology and qualified research personnel have developed preliminary support for the validation of the humoral theory and are also definitely poised to establish evidence based scientific support for the fundamentals of Unani System of Medicine in the years to come.

Central Council for Research Ministry of AYUSH, Government of India