Wednesday, September 27, 2023
Unani System of Medicine uses the unique holistic diagnostics comprising history, physical examination, pulse and inspection of urine and stool. History taking and physical examination are undertaken according to general parameters and specific parameters required by the particular problem of the patient, guided mainly by the ‘Ten Fundamental Categories’ (Ajnäs ‘Ashara). Ten features of pulse particularly observed during the diagnosis of a disease are - size of expansion, force, duration of movement and rest, condition of vessel wall, palpation of pulse, volume, equality and inequality, rhythm and weight of pulse. Apart, some other types of compound pulse have also been described in Unani System of Medicine. Unani scholars have described pulse in great detail under several headings such as normal pulse, factors governing pulse, effects of intrinsic factors such as age and sex, temperament, season, region and country, food and drink, sleep and wakefulness, exercise, bath, pregnancy, pain, swelling, and emotions. Physical examination of urine helps a lot in the diagnosis of not only urogenital diseases but also other systemic disorders. Several aspects are taken into account for diagnosis, e.g. quantity, colour, odour, consistency, foam or froth, precipitates, clearness and turbidity. The physical examination of stool also helps in the diagnosis of various diseases. Colour, quantity, consistency and presence of foreign bodies are observed during its physical examination. In addition to the above, Unani physicians have stressed on the importance of physical examination of the patient e.g. diagnosis by skin, nails, tongue, etc. Other modern tools of diagnosis are also used to confirm the diagnosis.